Why is Applied Behavior Analysis treatment helpful when teaching children with autism? What is it about these principles and techniques that seem to be a good fit in helping improve the lives of those affected with autism? These are very important questions to ask and their answers are imperative to understanding why individuals with autism often need specialized teaching environments to learn.
We all know that typically developing children learn throughout all waking hours, even when they are not being formally taught. Typically developing children watch other children, watch adults, watch TV, learn from school, and incorporate what they have learned into their repertoire. Often times they only need to see something once or twice before it comes easily to them. Parents are often amazed at what their children are learning and frequently ask, “where did you learn to do that?” Furthermore, when children acquire language, they often begin to ask questions of others in their environment. From the basic “why” question that parents so often get asked to more elaborate questions about “How this thing works, or how that thing works”. They become their own information seeking beings.
Unfortunately, this is not the case for the majority of children with autism. Children with autism learn much less from their environment. They have a weakness in what’s called observational learning or learning via imitation, that is, watching someone else do something, and learning to do it themselves without any specific teaching. Children with Autism typically have decreased language skills and thus attend less to others, or they understand less of what is said to them, or they ask fewer questions of others. For most children with autism, you cannot expect to put them in a classroom setting and have them learn and absorb what the teacher is saying, mainly as a direct result of the characteristics of autism.
However, ABA programs create a very structured environment where conditions are optimized for learning, and over time, this very structured environment is systematically changed so that it mimics what a child could expect if and when they are placed in the classroom. In other words, initially, an ABA program will create a somewhat unnatural or atypical learning environment for a child, such as teaching them in a distraction free, one-to-one environment in their home, but over time, this environment will slowly change so that it looks like every other classroom that a child may encounter in their school years. It is important to note that the main premise of an ABA program is teaching a child, “how to learn,” so that they will no longer need such structured and specialized services.
Also, ABA programs take into consideration generalization and maintenance and plan accordingly for these issues. That is, another common challenge with children with autism is that they don’t easily apply something that was learned in one environment into another environment (e.g., if something was taught at home, the child may not do it at school). Last, it is sometime difficult for children with autism to remember something that was taught at some time in the future. That is tough for all of us sometimes. However, it is essential for children with autism as their programs often are composed of skills that build on one another.