Using Graphic Organizers to Help Individuals Living with ASD in Classrooms and Other Settings

A graphic organizer is a visual support that provides visual representation of facts and concepts within the organized framework. Graphic organizers arrange key terms to show their relationship to one another, providing abstract of implicit information in a concrete, visual manner. They are particularly useful with content area material that occurs in K – 12 curricula. Graphic organizers are effective for a variety of reasons: they can be used before, during, or after students read a selection wither as an answer organizer of a measure of concept attainment. Graphic organizers also allow processing times for students as they can reflect on the written material at his or her own pace.

Additionally, abstract information is presented in a visual, concrete manner that is often more easily understood than a verbal presentation of the material alone.  One type of graphic organizer is a “thematic map.”  The focal point of the thematic map is the key word or concept enclosed in a geometric figure such as a circle or a square and if necessary, in a pictorial representation of the word or concepts. Lines and arrows connect this shape to the other shapes and words or information related to the central concepts are written on the connecting lines or in other shapes. As the map expands, the words become more specific and detailed.

The student may neither understand the concept of main idea, and/or not understand when the teacher is giving cues to students for salient information. For example, when the teacher repeats an item or changes voice tone, the information is important and typical students naturally pick this up. As with other areas, some students in the ASD spectrum do not pick up on these cues naturally and therefore need guidance. The teacher can assist the students by providing the following: (1) a complete outline that contains the main points in the lecture, (2) allowing students to follow the lecture, (3) while freeing them from any note-taking, (4) or the teacher may provide a skeletal outline that contains only the main point. Students may use this format to fill in pertinent details delivered through the direct verbal cues.  Verbal cues such as “this is the first main point” or “be sure to include…” assist the students in identifying which points are important. Subtle verbal cues also provide cues regarding importance such as “during the 1900’s…” “did you include that in your outline?” Or “make sure to remember the names.” The note-taking level of students on the spectrum then must be considered when selecting the appropriate type of assistance to be provided to the student.

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