Giving students warnings about time remaining in an activity can provide a helpful frame of reference. Time limit warnings should be paired with an auditory or visual cue, such as a bell or card. Towards the end of the work activity, the teacher should verbalize, ‘five minutes left, ‘two minutes left’. For students requiring additional support, the verbal que can be paired with the gestural pointing to the timer and manually signing ‘finished’ using sign language. When preparing students for the end of an activity that has a natural ending point, such as a game or a timed-test, the teacher should alert students that a transition is approaching by making such a statement as, ‘only a few more cards and the game is over’. Finally, time warnings or making transitional cards as part of the student’s routine can also help students with autism develop the capacity to be flexible for change. Additionally, teaching students to put away materials in the completion of an activity can function as a natural queue that one activity is ending, and that another is beginning. For example, the teacher can say, ‘once you finish that problem, you can begin to get ready for recess. All of these simple, yet very effective support strategies are easy to use, and help both students and teachers during everyday classroom activities.
Visual schedules can be used to support students with ASD in classrooms. They are a very common support that we’re sure that many teachers have already used or may being using in their classrooms currently. Visual schedules can be an extremely important element to provide students with an overview of the day’s activities and events, by identifying specific tasks that will occur at specific times. Visuals can present an abstract concept such as time in a more concrete and manageable form. The use of visual schedules for students with autism and Asperger Syndrome has many benefits. For example, visual schedules allow students to anticipate upcoming events and activities.
Visual schedules can help develop an understanding of time and they can really help facilitate the ability to predict change. Additionally, visual schedules can be used to stimulate communication exchanges by discussing past, present, and future events, as well as to teach new skills such as health care and grooming. Finally, visual schedules have been used to successfully increase on-task behavior, as well as enhancing the student’s ability to be independent and to make transitions from one activity to another. Visual schedules are effective because they capitalize on the visual strength exhibited by many students with ASD.
When creating visual schedules, consideration of each student’s level of understanding, that is if a student can read, of course we want the schedule to be handwritten, and if a student is at a pre-primer level, or just learning to read, the use of pictures, icons, or actual photographs, can be created. It’s important to make decisions based on the strengths of each of these students; Construct visual schedules to correspond to a student’s ability to understand visual representation. For students who require concrete visual schedules to understand upcoming events, an object schedule that uses the actual materials for each of the activities can be used. For example, if the student is expected to brush his or her teeth after lunch, put a toothbrush on the schedule to indicate that it’s time for the student to brush his teeth. Photographs of students actually completing the target activity can also be used with the visual schedules for students who require concrete representation.
The important thing to keep in mind here is to determine the appropriate level of visual representation. If a student is functioning at a photographic level, a color drawing can be paired with the photograph to induce the higher-level concept. Similarly, if a student is functioning at the black-and-white drawing or icon level, written words can and should be paired with that icon; clock faces can be added to the visual schedules to begin to introduce the concept of time. Schedules can be arranged either a left right or top to bottom format. Schedules can be constructed in a variety of formats, and so when you are developing the schedule, consider the length of time the schedule will be used, how durable the materials must be to meet the demands of the student, and whether the schedule is going to be permanent or if it needs to be mobile.
Additionally, student participation in creating visual schedules can allow a student to feel more comfortable when they’re allowed to participate in preparing their visual schedules. The participation can occur first thing in the morning, as the student enters the room, during morning routines; students can assist in assembling the schedules, copying it, or even adding their own personal patch in some manner. This interaction can be used to review the daily routine, discuss changes, and reinforce the rules. Be creative; have fun developing the visual schedules! And again, these schedules promote independence by identifying student expectations.
April is Autism Awareness Month and an excellent opportunity to promote and draw attention to the tens of thousands facing an autism diagnosis each year. #lightitupblue
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