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Using Social Stories to Help Individuals with Autism in Classrooms and Other Settings

Using Social Stories is a strategy that is likely not new to teachers. However, not all teachers know that they can be used to work with and teach individuals with autism specific skills surrounding social and behavioral needs. Social stories interventions enhance social skill acquisition for many students with autism. They help individuals with autism to better understand the tones of interpersonal communication so that they can interact in an effective and appropriate manner.

Let’s take a look at social stories are and how can they be used with students with autism?

A social story is a mini book that describes a social situation and the appropriate social responses. Social stories are individualized for each student and teach a specific desired response. They are used to seek answers to questions that an individual with autism may need to know to interact with others, for example, answers to who, what, when, where and why in social situations.  Social stories can also be used to learn new routines, activities, and how to respond appropriately to feelings like anger and frustration.

Social stories are written using four sentence types. Descriptive sentences, which provide information about the subject, setting, and action; directive sentences, which describe the appropriate behavioral responses; perspective sentences, which identify the possible feelings and reactions of others; and control sentences, which describe the actions and responses of the story participants. A sample control sentence might be, a puppy barks to get its owner’s attention. Or, Ginny yelled to get the teacher’s attention. It is customary for social stories to have two to five descriptive, perspective, or control sentences in the story. Writing social stories for lower functioning students or students who have the tendency to over focus on a specific part of the story may require dropping the control sentence.

When creating a social story there are 10 steps that are used: One, identify the target behavior in the problematic situation. Two, define the target behavior. Three, collect baseline data on the target behavior. Four, write a social story using the four-sentence types. Five, present one to three sentences on each page. Six, use photographs and drawings or icons. Seven, read the social story to the student and model the desired behavior for them. Eight, collect data on the target behavior. Nine, review the data and the social story procedures and modify if they are not effective. Ten, plan for maintenance and generalization.

Social stories are written in the first-person point of view or the child’s point of view. It should also be in the present tense and the child’s level of vocabulary and comprehension should be considered.

Remember that students with autism frequently do not maintain or generalize skills that they have learned. Although you will ultimately fade the use of a social story, plan activities to assist the student in generalizing skills across content, persons, environment, and situation. Remember to transition the newly acquired skill to the naturally occurring contingencies. Social stories appear to be a promising intervention method for improving the social behavior of individuals with autism.