Posts

Using Assignment Notebooks to Help Individuals with Autism in Classrooms and Other Settings

An effective organizational strategy for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder, especially those who are older and possess the prerequisite reading, writing, and organizational skills is an assignment notebook. All academic tasks and their due dates are listed in the notebook and the student will take it to school and home every school day. The most effective support would include a sample of how each assignment should look. Ideally, it should also contain examples of completed items (math equations, definitions, filled out problems, etc.) as these would function as visual examples of the correctly completed assignment. Although, simplified assignment books are certainly acceptable and can be effective depending on the particular student. The classroom teacher would need to check the notebook at school to make certain all information and expectations are included. At home, the parents or caregivers monitor the notebook to make sure the student has successfully completed all necessary assignments or activities to the level expected of them. A signature section for each day can provide an additional layer of thoroughness. This can include a signature section for the parent who monitors the assignment book and/or the student who completes the assignments. Essentially, these assignment books function as a visual checklist to help students stay organized and on-task. These are pretty standard in schools, yet it is imperative they are used to help students with ASD succeed.

As with most strategies for students on the spectrum, the specific skills required to effectively use an assignment book will need to be taught or should already be in the student’s repertoire. In addition, motivation needs to be taken into consideration. The teacher or support staff may need to provide additional reinforcement when the naturally occurring contingencies (i.e., assignment completion) are not sufficient. For example, if a student completes all daily assignments within a specified time frame, let’s say, homework that was assigned Monday through Thursday, then on Friday, they may receive access to a special activity or item. Another way to help students “buy-in” to the idea of assignment books is to individualize assignment books so that they include items, characters, colors, or designs that are preferable to the student. Students can customize their assignment books to increase the book’s value and help boost motivation.

We hope that you find the use of assignment books as a helpful organizational tool to promote homework and academic task completion!

How is Applied Behavior Analysis Different From Psychology?

The answer to this question is that while many people have historically viewed behavior analysis as a branch of psychology, the two disciplines take fundamentally different and antithetical perspectives to account for variability in human behavior.

In general, Behavior Analysis does not concern itself with mental states or inner thoughts when it comes to describing why we behave the way we do. Rather than focusing on “the mind,” behavior analysts look at behaviors, or in other words, what we do, as a consequence of things that happened previously. Simply put, we will repeat things when the consequences are pleasant and we will stop doing things when the consequences are unpleasant. Behavior analysis, as it suggests, focuses on treating behavioral problems from a purely behavioral perspective/lens. Functional analysis, gathering of data to establish trends, and then a subsequent intervention program or plan that utilizes various forms of operant learning are then applied.

Psychology focuses on the mind. Psychology as a discipline largely hypothesizes internal explanations (personality traits, mediating forces and other structures in the brain, etc.) explain differences in human behavior. Psychology looks to explain behavioral variability by appealing to internal causes that are typically seen as inside the mind (e.g., mood states, personality traits, hypothesized structures such as ego and/or drive states)

In short, the difference can be stated as follows: In the ENVIRONMENT (Behavior Analysis) versus inside the MIND (Psychology).

Using Time Warnings To Help Students With Autism

Now is the time? Kid and clock: preschool child preparing for the school

Giving students warnings about time remaining in an activity can provide a helpful frame of reference. Time limit warnings should be paired with an auditory or visual cue, such as a bell or card. Towards the end of the work activity, the teacher should verbalize, ‘five minutes left, ‘two minutes left’. For students requiring additional support, the verbal que can be paired with the gestural pointing to the timer and manually signing ‘finished’ using sign language. When preparing students for the end of an activity that has a natural ending point, such as a game or a timed-test, the teacher should alert students that a transition is approaching by making such a statement as, ‘only a few more cards and the game is over’. Finally, time warnings or making transitional cards as part of the student’s routine can also help students with autism develop the capacity to be flexible for change. Additionally, teaching students to put away materials in the completion of an activity can function as a natural queue that one activity is ending, and that another is beginning. For example, the teacher can say, ‘once you finish that problem, you can begin to get ready for recess. All of these simple, yet very effective support strategies are easy to use, and help both students and teachers during everyday classroom activities.

Who Can Provide ABA Therapy?

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy is typically provided by Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs), Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts (BCaBAs), Registered Behavior Technicians (RBTs), and paraprofessionals.

A BCBA is a person who has met the educational and professional training requirements established by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board. A BCBA will typically hold a Master’s degree in Psychology, Child Development, or a related field. Some BCBAs may also hold a doctoral degree in one of these fields and are referred to as BCBA-Ds (doctorate level BCBAs). The primary duties of BCBAs include: conducting clinical assessments, establishing skill based and behavior goals, updating and modifying treatment goals, conducting parent and caregiver trainings, supervising Registered Behavior Technicians and BCaBAs, ensuring the ABA program is implemented correctly and effectively, and writing progress reports required by funding sources.

A BCaBA (assistant Behavior Analyst) works under the supervision and direction of a BCBA and has similar duties as a BCBA. A BCaBA is also certified by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board and has met the necessary training and education requirements. A BCaBA will typically hold Bachelor’s degree in the field of Psychology, Child Development, or related field.

As stated by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board, an RBT is a person who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA, BCaBA, or BCBA-D. The Registered Behavior Technician is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of ABA services. This is the person who is typically working 1:1 with an individual in designated treatment settings (home, school, clinic, etc.) RBTs must be over 18 years old, possess at least a high school diploma, go through a designated training program, and pass other eligibility requirements. RBTs do not conduct assessments or create treatment programs, however they implement the treatment program designed by a Behavior Analyst and collect data on progress.

Other professionals such as Marriage and Family Therapists and Licensed Clinical Social Workers may also provide ABA therapy in some instances. However, the majority of ABA services are provided by Behavior Analysts and Registered Behavior Technicians. Other paraprofessionals, including individuals pursuing undergraduate or graduate degrees in Psychology and related fields and/or pursuing certification by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board, may also provide ABA therapy under the Supervision of Behavior Analysts.

When is a good time to start ABA therapy?

As a general recommendation, “earlier is better” when it comes to starting ABA therapy. The time at which a child is diagnosed with Autism or a related developmental disorder is typically also a good time to begin ABA therapy. There are several reasons for this. At younger ages, children go through more frequent critical periods in their development. These critical periods are maturation stages in which the individual is particularly sensitive to stimuli in their environment. Teaching certain concepts in these earlier years may pay off in the long run.

Additionally, the earlier a child learns critical and age relevant behaviors and skills, the more productive and meaningful their time at school will be. The child will be able to access more of the curriculum if the necessary prerequisite skills are targeted early on. For example, a child who is taught to raise their hand to ask for help, initiate a social play interaction, and count from 1-10 during ABA therapy may gain the ability to absorb more from the academic and social environment at the school setting.

Research indicates that early intervention can improve challenging behaviors and children’s overall development. Another reason early intervention is important is to ensure that challenging behaviors are addressed early on so that they do not have the opportunity to become entrenched with age. Without an individualized, function based intervention plan, challenging behaviors can become worse (e.g. increase in frequency, duration, and severity) over time. This is because reinforcement over time can strengthen behaviors. If a young child is constantly engaging in challenging behaviors, without a behavior plan in place, those challenging behaviors may be inadvertently reinforced, therefore contributing to the possibility that they may worsen over time.

Early intervention provides the skills necessary to set the child up for long term success. The more skills a child is equipped with early on, the more of their social and learning environments they will be able to access as they grow. In fact, teaching “pivotal behaviors” and “behavior cusps” are a crucial component of ABA programs, particularly during earlier stages of the ABA program. While these two terms are related, they refer to behaviors, that when learned, result in new and positive changes across many areas of a child’s life.

While there are significant benefits to starting ABA therapy as early as possible, that is not say there is a point at which it is “too late” to start. ABA programs are highly individualized to the needs of the learner and Behavior Analysts take into consideration numerous factors when designing an ABA program. These will include the learner’s current behavioral, social, academic, communication, self-help, and other needs from different curricular areas. This is why many individuals benefit from ABA therapy even when starting a program later in their development.

Therefore, while “earlier is better” is the common recommendation by most clinicians, ABA therapy can benefit many learners at various stages in their development due to its emphasis on individualization.

How to Teach Children with Autism How to Play Independently

Do you ever wonder how you make it through each day, getting your child dressed and to school?  What about shopping, laundry, house cleaning, and dinner? Somehow you do it, and that is enough for anyone to be proud of.  We want to provide you with some additional techniques that may help with the time when your child with autism is home and needs to be looked after, but you also have things to accomplish.

Preparing dinner is a great scenario that many parents have difficulties with.  The solution for many parents is to put a movie on, give the child the iPad, or to allow the child to engage in whatever self-stimulatory behaviors they enjoy most (e.g., running around the house repeating phrases, flapping objects up and down, or rolling cars back and forth on the floor while lying down staring at them).  Although these may be activities that make your child happy and allow you to get dinner ready, there are additional techniques that foster appropriate independent engagement by your child with autism during times you cannot provide your full attention.

Activity schedules work wonders for this purpose. Activity schedules are visual guides that lead a person through a series of activities, leading to an ultimate prize.  Visual schedules help with transitioning from one activity to another with minimal prompting.

There are some pre-requisites to being able to utilize schedules although these can be worked on in the meantime if your child does not have them.  Your child should be able to independently play with some objects, even if the object is as simple as a peg board, or as complex as a 100-piece Lego structure.  Laminate pictures of these activities and velcro them to a vertical strip hanging on the wall.  At the bottom should be a picture of what your child really wants to do in the moment, even if it’s dinner!  If your child has never had experience with an activity schedule, guide them through the process of pointing to the first picture, finding the activity, playing with the activity, putting the activity away, taking that picture off the schedule, pointing to the next picture, and so on and so forth until the ultimate activity or item is achieved.

Some tips: start with only one or two activities until your child can independently utilize the schedule and transition from activity to activity.  Also, remember that the activities should be somewhat preferred by your child, as this is their independent time and we want to increase the success of them playing independently.  If they dislike activities, this increases the chance of challenging behaviors and the need for more of your attention.  It may take a few days, or even weeks to develop this skill. Over time, your child will be able to complete this task with increasing independence, practice decision making and pursue the activities that interest him or her and it will give you some much needed time to get things done while at the same time knowing that your child is being productive.

When You Start an ABA program, What Should You Reasonably Expect from Your Service Provider?

The following are things that you should expect as a parent when you begin treatment for your child with Autism.

You and your child have a right to a therapeutic environment.  This means that the teaching environment set up to help your child is one in which socially significant learning occurs.  As a client, your child also has the right to services from an agency in which their number one goal is the personal welfare of your child (e.g., safety, treatment efficacy, advocacy). This means that all energy put into the program is to help your child become more independent and lead a better life.

It is also your child’s right to have a treatment program supervised by a competent behavior analyst. Unfortunately, as the rates of autism have increased, so have the number of treatment programs allegedly providing assistance to children with autism.  Furthermore, in many locations, the demand presently outweighs the supply for trained, experienced behavior analysts. It is imperative that the credentials and qualifications of your service provider be credible.

Your child has a right to be provided with a program that teaches functional skills. Functional skills are skills that a child can use in their everyday life and that furthers their independence (tying shoes, initiating conversation, engaging in cooperative play, etc.). There is little benefit in taking the time and dedication to teach a child something that cannot be incorporated or used in their everyday life.

Assessment and ongoing evaluation are crucial components of any ABA program, and should be expected.  This includes setting up a program based on the individual needs of a child and continuing a program based on the ongoing needs of a child. These needs will continually change, therefore ongoing assessments and modifications are imperative, necessary, and a right.

Parent and caregiver trainings should be included in the ABA program. These typically include meetings between parents or caregivers and their service provider in which valuable ABA strategies are discussed, demonstrated, and implemented. The focus of these meetings is to educate parents about various but individualized ABA based techniques they can implement with their child to address challenging behaviors, reinforce desirable behaviors, and promote generalization of progress.

Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, a child with autism has the right to the most effective treatment procedures available. In this case – scientifically validated treatment programs which today have only been shown to be based on ABA principles and techniques.

Motivating Children With Autism

Motivating Individuals Living with Autism: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation can be challenging issue for most of us. Take for example the fact that a lot of us struggle to exercise or to get on a diet even though these lifestyle changes could likely make a huge difference in our health and consequently, our quality of live.  In Behavior Analysis we sometimes discuss motivation by categorizing it in two ways—intrinsic and extrinsic. Looking at motivation in this way gives rise to an interesting conceptual discussion which points back to the work behavior analysts do with children with autism. Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that would be described as coming from within a person. That is, you do something because you like it. For example, the prima ballerina that rehearses 8 hours a day because she wants to be able to perform exceptionally. Extrinsic motivation on the other hand refers to motivation that comes from others or our environment.  For example, some employees in a manufacturing company may show up to work on time to avoid getting in trouble with the boss (a quick footnote is that our behavior is under many influences and thus there are many sources of motivation on behavior at any given moment. These are rudimentary examples to help facilitate the point of motivation).

The same intrinsic and extrinsic motivational mechanisms apply with children living with autism. Many children with ASD are not interested in doing all of the things that we would like them to do or other tasks or skills that other typically developing children do.  Some of our children on the spectrum may choose to engage in repetitive play or ignore others. It is not uncommon for children with autism to attend to things that only they find interesting. And when this free time is interrupted or when they are asked to attend to something or someone else, they may appear unmotivated to learn or disinterested. In some cases, other challenging behaviors may be occasioned if we follow-through with our demands.

Without motivation, the learning process may be significantly slowed down if not impossible; therefore, at every stage of an ABA program, every effort is made to increase a child’s motivation to learn. Ample time is spent finding out what things a child likes (e.g., reinforcer surveying or reinforcer sampling) and what things will motivate them to attend long enough to learn.

Motivation in an intensive Applied Behavior Analysis program may initially take the form of something external (extrinsic), such as being rewarded with their favorite foods, candies, or activities. Often times, verbal praise and high-fives or anything that a child may find enjoyable is used. However, it is hoped that over time, this motivation will transition from extrinsic to intrinsic such that a child will engage in learning for personal joy and accomplishment (e.g., building a block house and being happy with the completed structure) and for that reason, rewards like candy or other foods can be systematically reduced while more natural rewards take their place.

Using extrinsic rewards is a common concern that others may have when their use is considered in an early ABA program. However, as long as individuals managing ABA programs plan ahead and strive to transition from extrinsic into more intrinsic forms of reinforcers over time, the use of extrinsic forms ought to be considered in their child’s program in order to facilitate learning early-on in the service.

Parenting Survival Skills

Do you ever feel like your child or children take all of your energy and you therefore have no energy to give to your spouse, partner, or friends?  This is very normal although so important to pay attention to, be mindful of, and work at.  Humans are social beings and we need that support network to function in our daily lives.  Without it, we will get worn down and we will eventually see turmoil in our relationships, work, and ways of parenting.  Below are some relationship recommendations that are so important when raising children, more importantly, children with autism.

First, ensure that you have a close adult companion who you can confide in.  If you have a spouse or partner, it will most likely be them.  If you do not have a spouse or a partner, identify a close friend who you can have real, open conversations with and who can call on when in times of need.  It’s important to let someone know what you are going through and how you feel.  Someone who just listens can be a great source of strength.

Second, have high levels of communication with your partner about your parenting strategies, away from your child.  It is so important to have consistent parenting styles and strategies.  Disagreeing during an episode with your child will only increase the stress and make matters worse.  The communication needs to happen when you are alone with each other and you can come to resolutions.  This will help in times when one parent needs a break and the other parent can step right in and be consistent with the strategies that the first parent was just using.  Just as a marriage builds a relationship, a child builds a team.

Ask for help, especially at first. Don’t hesitate to use whatever support is available for you. Your family and friends are there to help, but may not know how.  Maybe you can just have someone take the kids out for an afternoon? Or cook dinner for your family one night.

If you can, allow yourself to take a break, take some time away.  It can be as simple as taking a walk or even going to see a movie, going shopping or visiting a friend can make a world of a difference. Schedule fun adult time on a regular basis, away from your child, with your partner or close friends.  This is so important!  Parenting is difficult and brings many challenges to relationships.  It is important to spend time together, focusing on the two of you and not worrying about your child in the next room.

Lastly, don’t forget to rest.  If you are getting regular sleep, you will be better prepared to make good decisions, be more patient with your child and deal with the stress in your life.

Remember that if you want to take the best possible care of your child, you must first take the best possible care of yourself. Relax, have fun, and focus on you!

Did this help you?

How To Make Long Car Rides More Manageable With Children With Autism

Taking a long car ride anytime soon?  It’s time to start planning how to keep your child busy and how to make the long drive as enjoyable as it can be.  Some children with autism may do really well on car rides as it provides them with time for them to do enjoyable things such as looking out the window and watching the trees and other cars go by.  Some may enjoy listening to the music in the car, or even sleeping throughout the trip!  Other children may not do so well and parents may run into troubles such as crying, screaming, kicking seats, and even trying to get out of seat belts.  Regardless of how easy or how difficult your car rides are, some of the below strategies may assist with make the ride a bit more enjoyable.

First, remember to switch on the child lock so that the rear door cannot be opened from the inside. If your child is someone who tries to get out of the seat belt, then you may consider getting covers or locks for the buckles in the backseat. Also, make sure that the child’s car seat is installed correctly.  You can also make the car seat more comfortable for the long car ride by adding more padding under the seat cover.

Providing visuals can be another great strategy in making long road trips more manageable.  Use schedules, maps and even photo albums to help understand where you are going and whom you will see. Any type of visual support will reduce anxiety and increase interest.

Your child may need to take some regular breaks and be able to get out of the car to stretch or run around.  Look for signs that your child may be anxious, such body language, and take pit stops as needed.

Planning out the mileage of the trip and divide that mileage up into small chunks can be very helpful. If you are driving 300 miles, break this up into 10 chunks of 30 miles (or even 20 chunks of 5 miles, depending on how often your child may need positive rewards for good behavior).  Every 30 miles that your child behaves well (define this for your child such as sitting nicely, no screaming, and no kicking) he or she is allowed to pull a prize out of a prize bag that you have prepared ahead of time with treats, small toys, and special items that your child will enjoy.  Children with autism often dislike uncertainty and that uncertainty often creates overwhelm and behavior problems.  To avoid this, draw out squares on a piece of paper so he knows how many squares are left until you arrive at your destination.  Possibly make the half way point a very large prize, if he or she earns it.

Prepare a snack bag as well as a toy bag ahead of time so you have food when your child is hungry and toys when your child is bored.  Toys such as drawing boards, electronics (iPad or similar device) on which the child can play games or watch movies, travel games such as perfection, and books may work well to keep your child occupied.

The theme is to plan ahead so you and your family can be prepared for the long trek ahead.

Have fun and Bon Voyage!