Impairment in communication is one of the main diagnostic criteria for a child with autism, specifically a delay in or total lack of spoken language. Behavior analysts break down “language” into many reasons a child would communicate. Based on these reasons, they identify where there are deficits and how they can increase these deficit areas. We will outline some of them here in a very easy-to-understand manner and then give some advice on how to increase these forms of language every day.
The first form of language a child engages in is repeating. This happens when a child repeats what another person says. You may be thinking at this point that your child with autism does this a lot! Many children with autism engage in this behavior although it is repetitive in nature and they do not do it to get attention from others (why typically developing children repeat language); they do it because it is fun for them. In order to learn other forms of language (which we will discuss below), a child should be able to repeat what an adult says on command. If your child does not do this regularly, give many opportunities for repetition, each day throughout the day. Get your child’s full attention, say a simple sound or word very clearly to them (e.g., “ahhhh”) and continue to do this until they repeat or approximate what you are saying. Provide lots of praise and even preferred items.
Another important form of language a child engages in is requesting. Many children with autism engage in challenging behaviors as a form of requesting (e.g., crying to get a cookie and this results in them getting a cookie so they will quiet down), instead of using appropriate language (e.g., “mommy, can I have a cookie?”). This form of language can be taught throughout the day, every day, if you know what your child wants. Keep many of their preferred items out of reach, especially food items. Whenever they show a desire for something, model what they should say or do to communicate (e.g., you say “cookie”, engage in the manual sign for cookie, or point to the cookie icon or picture for them to give you) and require them to engage in the same communicative behavior that you modeled before you give them the cookie. Give them small pieces of food items, little sips of drinks, or a short amount of time to play with preferred toys so you can remove the item and practice requesting for the item again. If you do this about three times each time they want varied things throughout the day, your child will begin to gain this requesting skill, and you may see a decrease in challenging behaviors.
Remember, to learn language your child must receive lots and lots of learning opportunities per day. You can provide this by engaging in simple strategies such as the ones we discussed above.
What challenges have you faced? Please write us back and we will respond.