Premack Principle

Premack Principle – Put simply, a desired behavior can be used as a reinforcer for a non-/low-desired behavior. For example, spending extra time playing on a gaming console (the highly-desired behavior) can be used as a reinforcer for cleaning up one’s room (the non-/low-desired behavior).

 

SLP/OT

SLP/OT– Speech and Language Pathologist and Occupational Therapist. These are professionals who often work with individuals with autism to provide therapy services related to speech, movement, developmental goals, coordination, and functional communication. Although it may beneficial to include these professionals in your child’s ABA team, using these professionals solely without a BCBA/BCBA-D in the team is not recommended.

Positive Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement – A procedure in which a behavior is followed by an event/item/activity that results in the strengthening of the behavior over time. By definition, the procedure MUST have the anticipated strengthening effect on the behavior for the intervention be considered as positive reinforcement.  Much like positive punishment in which the “punisher” or punitive stimulus can be anything, the same goes for positive reinforcement. Smiles, candies, high-fives, “Good-job!” and tokens can be reinforcers. Reprimands, time-outs, losing a token can also be reinforcers. Again, this is another very important concept so it is recommended that you discuss this topic with your BCBA.

 

Positive Punishment

Positive Punishment – A procedure in which a behavior is followed by an event/item/activity that results in the weakening of the behavior over time. By definition, the procedure MUST have the anticipated weakening effect on the behavior for the intervention be considered as positive punishment.  A “punisher” or punitive stimulus can be anything as long as the behavior weakens upon its repeated presentation. For example, reprimands, time-outs, losing a token, smiles, candies, high-fives, “good-jobs!” all can be punitive stimuli.  This is a very important concept to understand so it is recommended that you discuss this topic with your BCBA/BCBA-D.

Positive Practice Overcorrection

Positive Practice Overcorrection – A form of positive punishment in which a learner, after a misbehavior, performs the “correct form” of the behavior, OR a behavior incompatible with the misbehavior for a few times.  For example, a student will simply stand up and walk out of the classroom when he needs to use the restroom. For this procedure, the student may be required to raise his hand to gain the teacher’s attention first, the teacher asking the student what he wants to say, then the teacher instructing the student to raise his hand once again, and again, before giving the student permission to use the restroom.

Planned Ignoring

Planned Ignoring – This is an extinction-based technique used to reduce specific attention-seeking/attention-based problematic behaviors. When implementing planned ignoring, the instructor must be prepared for extinction bursts or “worsening of the attention-based problematic behavior” before the initial problem behavior stops. Again, it is important to remember that planned ignoring is only for challenging behaviors that function for attention.

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): For individuals with difficulties vocally communicating their needs to another, PECS is an alternative communication system that uses pictures.  

Perseverative Behavior (Stereotypical Behavior)

Perseverative Behavior (Stereotypical Behavior)– Excessively and stereotypically performing a behavior over time.  Not to be confused with self-stimulatory behavior (“stimming”) as not all perseverative behaviors are auto-reinforced.

 

PDD

PDD– Pervasive Developmental Disorder was previously classified as a form of autism. PDD is no longer a separate diagnosis in the most recent DSM V.

NT

NT– Neuro-Typical. This adjective is more politically-correct to use in describing individuals not living with autism. Use this instead of “normal.”