Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a scientifically backed, highly individualized treatment method which can be effective in many ways especially for individuals living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ways in which ABA can be effective depend on several factors including but not limited to the individual needs of the learner, frequency of treatment, specific interventions, and the environment in which services are implemented. While it can be said that one of the ultimate goals of ABA is to help individuals living with ASD and their families achieve their goals; thus, improving their quality of life in general.
One of the ways in which ABA therapy is effective is through the identification and treatment of challenging behaviors. Effective ABA programs will identify challenging and undesirable behaviors at the onset of services. The function, or purpose of the challenging behavior(s) will be identified and a comprehensive behavior intervention plan will be established. An effective behavior intervention plan should include researched backed principles to reduce the unwanted behavior and should also include replacement behaviors. Replacement behaviors are behaviors that achieve the same result as the challenging behavior but are considered to be socially appropriate, easy to engage in, and generally speaking, more desirable than the challenging behavior. For example, if it is determined that a learner engages in aggressive behaviors to escape a difficult task, replacement behaviors which will be taught may include requesting a break, or asking for help. Hence, one of the ways in which ABA therapy is effective is through the assessment and treatment of undesirable behaviors.
Another way in which ABA therapy is effective is through the identification and targeting of skill development goals. ABA therapy will typically address skill deficits across several domains. These domains will vary and depend on the individual needs of the learner. For example, skill development goals may be targeted to address deficits in communication, self-help skills, motor skills, social skills, or play skills. Again, the specific skill development goals that are chosen by the family and ABA team will vary based on the current clinical needs of the learner. Ultimately, the goal of skill development programs is to improve the learner’s quality of life and promote more independence.
It is important to note that ABA therapy does not start and end with the learner. High quality ABA programs will involve family members, caregivers, and other stakeholders in the child’s environment. One of the goals of ABA programs is to transfer knowledge of the techniques and strategies that are used in the program to other individuals in the child’s life. This is usually achieved through parent and caregiver training sessions. In these training sessions, a Behavior Analyst or qualified Supervisor will instruct the parent or caregiver on various techniques that are shown to be effective in the ABA program. This is usually accomplished through verbal instruction, role play, modeling, and demonstrations of the techniques by the parent/caregiver while feedback is provided. Hence, the transfer of knowledge from the ABA provider to caregivers in the child’s life is another way in which ABA therapy is effective.